The AE Brown Bag Lecture Series is a Daniel Guggenheim School tradition: select AE undergrads and grad students share their research before an audience that includes their peers and academic advisors. If you would like to present a Brown Bag, speak with your advisor or contact the Fall 2022 admin support,
COVID-19 Programming Adjustment
Most Fridays during the Spring 2022 Semester, we will host Brown Bag presentations, time TBA. They will be viewable via BlueJeans and in-person in Guggenheim 442 (light refreshments provided). Presentations that are recorded will have a linked title.
"Mechanical Hopper Design for Lunar Extreme Terrain Mobility"
Abstract: NASA’s 2022 BIG Idea Challenge calls for university students to investigate novel solutions to the challenge of extreme terrain mobility on lunar surface. This will aid in expanding access and capability to areas for volatile/ice mapping, instrument delivery, and expanding operating sites. Rising to this call to support the upcoming Artemis Lunar Base, the Georgia Institute of Technology Extreme Terrain Mobility team has been formed this semester to design novel ideas for expanding access up the Shackleton Crater’s slope. This presentation will review the team’s progress and present one of our top ideas for discussion. Two additional ideas will be lightly skimmed in the appendix for interested audiences.
"Simulation and Build of the P5 Hall-effect Thruster"
The P5 Hall-effect thruster was developed by the University of Michigan for research purposes in collaboration with the Air Force. Over time, many iterations of this thruster have been built and tested. This semester, under the supervision of Dr. Walker, the original single-stage design has been reconstructed from an alternate two-stage design and will be tested under vacuum conditions once it is completed. VSimPD has been utilized to simulate the plasma discharge from this thruster and is compared to actual test results. The focus of these simulations has been on the prediction of specific impulse, magnetic field profile, and thermal processes in the thruster.
"Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) Methods for Preliminary Aircraft Design"
Design, in general, is an iterative, interdisciplinary, and systematic process that combines many different backgrounds and tools to develop a functional product. Current classroom methods for aircraft design rely on complex, manual iterations that involve a combination of spreadsheet-based calculations. Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) seek to improve the current approach to design used in industry and research applications. Both of these concepts draw on systems engineering principles and can integrate various tools into one cohesive model. Thus, they can be leveraged to organize and unlock the possibility of uniting different models and software used in preliminary design. This presentation will discuss previous work and the benefits and of MBSE and MDAO, in addition to the procedure of converting conceptual design methods into an integrated MDAO environment.
“Validation of a Rapid Technique for Aerodynamic Analysis and Heat Transfer of Hypersonic Vehicles”
The design of a hypersonic-capable vehicle requires reliable predictions of its surface heating as well as its aerodynamic properties. Traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics solvers are often used to estimate convective heat flux over these vehicles along with its aerodynamic coefficients. However, obtaining these high-fidelity estimates is rather slow and computationally expensive. A lower fidelity estimation can be of great value early in the design process, where hundreds or even thousands of simulations are often needed. To provide this capability, a rapid, computationally inexpensive method based on the Modified Newtonian approximation was implemented into an existing CFD code. It provides convective heat flux estimations over blunted body vehicles as well as its aerodynamic coefficients at varying angles of attack. To validate the accuracy of this method, simulations on common geometries and vehicles in hypersonic flow were run and compared against experimental and semi-empirical data. This presentation will discuss the method and the theories is uses, review the steps taken to validate it, and highlight the various applications it can be used for.
"MBSE Modeling for NAVAIR's Skyzer"
Model based systems engineering (MBSE) poses a unique solution to the US Government's acquisition process. It allows for a single source of truth in the model and streamlines the transferring of data between all stakeholders involved in the acquisition process. Skyzer is a hypothetical search and rescue UAV that is being developed in order to simulate NAVAIR's potential acquisition process with an MBSE approach. A key benefit with an MBSE approach to systems acquisition is the amount of analysis that can be done in the systems model for requirements, functionality, architecture, and even cost. This presentation will focus on an MBSE based approach and its benefits to cost modeling the Skyzer system.
“Design, Fabrication, and Integration of the OrCa2 12U CubeSat”
OrCa2 is a 12U CubeSat currently in development in the Georgia Tech Space Systems Design Laboratory under Dr. Brian Gunter. OrCa2 is an interesting mission, following in the footsteps of OrCa1 as a reflector to be observed from ground stations on campus. However, unlike OrCa1, OrCa2 will also carry multiple experiments and an ADCS system. These experiments include an imager for star-tracking, radiation experiments currently in development in conjunction with ECE, as well as a custom built battery and power stack currently in development for use in future SSDL missions. OrCa2 plans to launch sometime in 2022, so our team is on a rapid development schedule with a goal to have an integrated engineering unit by the end of this semester.
Combustion instabilities are one of the most significant issues plaguing a wide array of combustors, from large, ground-based gas turbines to liquid bipropellant rocket engines. Large-amplitude, high-frequency instabilities can result in high cycle fatigue (HCF) of the combustor hardware, leading to reduced combustor lifetime. Additionally, high frequency acoustic modes are narrowly spaced apart, making it difficult to simultaneously identify multiple modes. Therefore, determining the range of operating conditions which reduce or eliminate combustion instabilities is of great interest to the combustion community. Thermoacoustic instabilities were generated on a lean, premixed methane/air, can-annular combustor rig by varying the pilot and equivalence ratios, among other parameters. The thermoacoustic profile inside the chamber was reconstructed as a function of equivalence and pilot ratio to identify the modes present at each operating condition. The mode shapes in the axial and azimuthal directions were simultaneously identified by employing a least squares routine and solving the three-dimensional wave equation using pressure oscillations measured from multiple high temperature pressure transducers.
Prediction of thermoacoustic modes requires considering the stochastic behavior of heat release and mode development. Using hydrodynamics, a two-mode system of non-linear, coupled, stochastic PDEs were numerically solved, thereby generating a data set from which combustion parameters (e.g., mode net growth rate) could be determined using an analytical functional form for the amplitude development. Current work focuses on employing an iterative routine to back-solve for the combustion parameters (operating conditions) which yield combustion processes void of instabilities.
"Iterative Inhibit Switch Design Process for the GT-2 CubeSat Mission"
GT-2 is a CubeSat currently under development in the Space Systems Design Laboratory, with an expected launch of April 2022. GT-2 is built off lessons learned from the previously designed CubeSat, GT-1, and with modifications to fit new design requirements for this mission. One aspect of the structural design that required a redesign was regarding the inhibit switches. There were numerous design decisions and changes made to update the GT-1 structure for these inhibits, including switching between inhibit types, placement of the inhibits, and changes to the CubeSat walls with the inhibits. This presentation will cover this iterative design process, go over lessons learned, and additionally cover future work for the structure of GT-2 before launch.
“Modelling Electrical Demand in Georgia”
One of the challenges of managing the power grid is responding to changes in demand. Since there is only limited capacity for electricity storage, the supply must be matched to demand in real time. To simplify this problem, this project seeks to create effective models of power demand, moving along two tracks. The first involved improving an existing neural network model. This model was very accurate but did not consider the effects of human events such as holidays. An analysis of these events revealed clear effects on usage which were incorporated into the model, improving its accuracy. The second and ongoing effort focuses on developing an agent-based model of demand. Instead of being fit from past usage data, this model will simulate the decisions of power users that make up demand. This will result in a more flexible model which can easily be changed to account for unprecedented situations or novel types of usage.
Elton Shinji Okuma Hayachiguti
Aerospace systems have become increasingly complex with time and traditional document-based systems engineering can be inefficient due to the many standalone models for the system. MBSE focuses on creating a unified shared system model that better manages this complexity. This research focused on integrating conceptual design analysis tools into System Modeling Language (SysML) models using MATLAB and exploring the analysis capabilities of such model.
Flame burn profiles and behavior under a variety of flow conditions is a “hot” topic in propulsion for all types of fuel injectors, especially with the increased interest in coaxial swirl injectors. While analytical models and CFD have provided a wealth of information for laminar flow, existing turbulence models leave much to be desired. Direct numerical simulations are extremely computationally expensive and limited in scope, thus it is necessary to observe real-world turbulence phenomena to characterize it. Because turbulence occurs over such short length and time scales, characterizing flame patterns and recirculation zones requires very precise measurement techniques to capture the smallest features. This presentation will discuss a few precision systems for turbulence diagnostics, including hot-wire anemometry, laser-doppler velocimetry (LDV), and particle image velocimetry (PIV), along with their respective advantages and limitations. Data collection methods and data post-processing will also be discussed for the PIV case
When designing a nozzle for flow field generation via a shock tunnel, it is essential to ensure proper geometry and subsequently proper flow characteristics. This presentation details a computational fluid dynamics based analysis used to study the performance of such a nozzle and verify its geometry. In particular, this presentation focuses on a converging-diverging nozzle designed using the axi-symmetric Method of Characteristics to produce uniform, Mach 5 flow. Discussion includes boundary condition selection, grid generation, solver selection, simulation results, and solution validation. Additionally, comparisons are made between results from various turbulence models and next steps for this analysis are discussed.
This research aims to investigate the influence of the microstructure, defect features, and surface roughness on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) strength of IN625 manufactured using Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) process. 11 AM builds each containing several fatigue test specimens with axis of specimen oriented in either the z-direction (build direction) or transverse direction were manufactured to explore the influence of variations in laser scan speed, hatch spacing, and L-PBF machine system. These processing conditions resulted in variations in microstructure, defect features, and surface roughness, all of which can influence fatigue strength. All specimens were stress-relieved before removal from build plate and then a hot isostatic press- ing (HIP) was performed. Specimens were tested in either as-is condition, with no further machin- ing or polishing, or in a polished condition to establish the role of surface roughness on fatigue strength. The fatigue strength of each specimen was determined using a step test method. To establish a reference stress-life curve and to validate the step test method, fatigue tests were also conducted on a cold-rolled IN625 sheet having similar strengths as the AM specimens. Stress-life curves that include the influence of microstructure are estimated using the fatigue strength data and the reference stress-life curve from the wrought IN625. The fatigue fracture surfaces were characterized with SEM microscopy to determine the microstructure feature associated with fa- tigue crack nucleation and understand the variability of the fatigue results. Average roughness for all builds was measured to find trends with the high cycle fatigue results. Tensile test results for various mechanical properties including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and strain to failure z and xy specimens was plotted against fatigue strength to find trends. Fatigue strength was also evaluated against processing parameters to assess the influence and find optimal design parameters. Finally, mean stress correction methods for different R values were used to calculate average fatigue strength for designer specifications.
"Design and Analysis of an Aircraft Thermal Management System Linked to a Low Bypass Ratio Turbofan Engine"
The success of future military aircraft depends greatly on their ability to dissipate the extreme thermal loads that are associated with the advanced weaponry and electronic systems onboard these aircraft. A design was developed for an aircraft thermal management system (TMS) capable of meeting these heat dissipation demands and rejecting heat loads into the bypass stream of a typical low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, or a ram-air stream. This presentation will discuss the design of the TMS system and how it was linked to the engine, and a comparison will be shown between the cooling capabilities of the ram-air stream versus the engine bypass stream, along with the benefits and drawbacks of each cooling stream. The ability of a sized TMS to reject the demanded aircraft loads throughout several key off-design points will be shown, along with the impact of engine bleeds on engine thrust and fuel consumption. The presentation will also discuss next steps for this research, most notably the need to develop variable cycle engine models.
Even the simplest swirling jet flows possess an astonishing degree of complexity. This complexity is a two-edged sword, presenting both a unique opportunity to advance the science of fluid mechanics as well as a major barrier for a variety of engineering applications. Swirling jet technologies have proven crucial for enabling the increased efficiencies and drastically reduced emissions seen in modern combustion systems. However, the enhanced mixing and flame stability characteristics offered by swirling flow configurations are constrained by a relatively limited understanding of their dynamics, which continues to press the power and propulsion industry against the limits of reliable performance. In this work, the behavior of laminar swirling jets is considered from a dynamical systems perspective using bifurcation analysis. These results offer several new insights into the key physics of swirling jets, such as demonstrating bistability between competing low-pressure regions and characterizing the bifurcations and nonlinear dynamics of a variety of coherent limit-cycle structures from an initially steady state.
GT-2 is a CubeSat currently being developed by an undergraduate-led team in the Space Systems Design Laboratory. The goal of the GT-2 mission is to improve on the design of its predecessor and thus provide more capability to future missions utilizing the GT-X series satellite bus. One key improvement will come through the addition of a GPS receiver to the spacecraft. The GPS receiver will provide valuable positioning information to the satellite's developing ADC subsystem and potentially to future payloads. This presentation will focus on the acceptance testing process for GT-2’s Pumpkin GPS Receiver Module. Receiver testing was performed using a GNSS constellation simulator, which enabled verification of the receiver’s ability to make accurate position solutions at orbital speeds and altitudes in a lab setting. Additional testing was performed to ensure that the receiver was compatible with the CubeSat’s space-grade L1 band antenna and that position fixes could be achieved from non-simulated GPS signals. The presentation will also detail lessons learned from this testing process as well as future work involving the GT-2 GPS receiver module.
The Rotorcraft Simulation Lab on campus focuses primarily on pilot-in-the-loop testing which allows for rapid evaluation of various control systems and provides a stress-free environment for pilots to conduct potentially hazardous testing. One of the more difficult procedures performed by a rotorcraft is a shipboard landing due to the high levels of pilot workload associated with the complex operation. The current simulator queueing system lacks key sensory factors such as sounds, vibrations, and visual details which could significantly enhance the accuracy of the data recorded. Microsoft Flight Simulation software and associated modeling-based programs were evaluated in an effort to improve the visual details. Additionally, testing was conducted with the current simulation software, Unigen, to introduce sounds and vibrations into the simulator. This presentation will discuss several of the difficulties in providing an accurate simulation environment and steps that can be taken to improve the human factors aspect of the Rotorcraft Simulation Lab.
Lunar Flashlight is a JPL cubesat that will scan the lunar surface for water ice and other volatiles. To achieve lunar orbit, the satellite will utilize a green monopropellant propulsion system developed by the GT Space Systems Design Lab and NASA MSFC. The design, manufacturing, and assembly of the propulsion system were all done here at SSDL. Due to the unique geometry of some of the additively manufactured parts, a successful assembly required many different integration fixtures to be developed, and the Aero Make Space facilities allowed for the team to utilize 3D printing techniques to efficiently develop and manufacture these fixtures. This presentation will discuss the assembly of the system, including how rapid additive manufacturing capabilities aided in a smooth assembly process, and highlight lessons learned for future spacecraft and propulsion system assembly at GT.
Combustion relies on thermodynamic reactions in order to convert chemical energy into thermal energy for the purpose of generating power. Combustion reactions are engineered to be as efficient as possible by operating under optimal conditions, one of which is to utilize a high pressure. However, as pressure is increased to approach a supercritical state, fluctuations in reaction rates and the thermodynamic properties of fluids undergoing turbulent combustion occur at an increased frequency and on an increasingly smaller scale. Current combustion modeling techniques may not provide an accurate depiction of the impact on performance and efficiency caused by these fluctuations at a high pressure. This prompts the need for new and precise measurements to be taken of turbulent combustion at a supercritical state in order to create a unique data set to be used for benchmarking and model development. This presentation will detail the design and development of a combustor in order to operate under high pressures for the purpose of collecting data using the Raman scattering technique.
Taylor Kate Boyett
During my internship at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center, I was able to work with a small team of engineers in the Configuration Aerodynamics Branch. The focus of my internship was exploring, understanding, and analyzing a slotted airfoil using a suite of Computational Fluid Dynamics tools. My main objective was to identify, based on the lift coefficient and pressure distribution data, the optimum configuration of leading- and trailing-edge devices for the slotted airfoil at low-speed, high-lift conditions. This was accomplished by reviewing technical papers on the subject, becoming familiar with the software, and performing parametric studies using the CDISC design software to make changes to the shape of the airfoil. Once completed, I used the data and information collected to identify a set of design rules that would consistently yield the optimum performance. These findings were then compiled into a presentation to be shown at the conclusion of my internship.
“Validation of the Gravity Offset Compensator for Off-Nominal Orientation of Chaser Spacecraft for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations Experimental Testbed”
The purpose of this study was to validate the Gravity Offset Compensator Model which adjusts for the floor level gradients along the ASTROS test platform site. The Gravity Offset Compensator Model was developed by previous researcher Kunal Gangolli. It had not been fully implemented into Simulink or fully validated with experimental data for comparison with the model. This research implements the gravity model into the controls and simulated models of highly sensitive robotic systems COSMOS and ASTROS. Several experimental validation methods were used to test the gravity model. Two free-floating experiments were created to test simulated controls against real-world data. However, neither of these methods were sufficient for validation. For the smaller robot COSMOS, deep scratches in the floor, which were not modeled by the gravity model, forced the robot to move in unpredicted ways which did not enable the researcher to determine the validity of the gravity model. For the larger robot ASTROS less influenced by the floor scratches, the implementation of the gravity model could not have been completed in time due to hardware issues. Instead, the researcher prepared a future validation experiment for when ASTROS is ready.
As the number of satellites, and amount of debris, in Earth’s orbit continue to dramatically increase further developments in Space Situational Awareness are critical to responsible and safe use of near-Earth space. This presentation will focus on a data-driven approach to the initial orbit determination problem. In particular, development of a machine learning pipeline for real-time initial orbit determination from optical telescope data will be discussed. A convolutional neural network was trained to accept a series of inertially mapped orbits as features and outputted Keplerian orbital elements as labels. The created model was evaluated using both synthetic and real data collected at the Georgia Tech Space Object Research Telescope (GT-SORT).
Attained from the term tensional integrity, tensegrity describes a system comprised of isolated components under compression within a tensile network. These tensile forces help stabilize the structure, even when the compression elements experience buckling. Because they are generally lightweight and able to withstand high velocity impacts, tensegrity systems present an interesting possibility of adopting the concept for planetary landing and exploration applications. As a unique and exciting approach towards designing more efficient and cost-effective planetary rovers, the tensegrity rover could be implemented for future missions to Mars, asteroids, and more. This presentation features highlights of the engineering efforts involved in the design and development of a system which enables the tensegrity lattice to move robotically.
"A Study of Flow Dynamics on A Ballistic Bluff Body Combustor"
The objective of this research is to develop computer models of a reacting flow over a ballistic bluff body at low Reynold’s Numbers. Ballistic bluff bodies are present in a wide spectrum of applications, from industrial boilers to turbojet and ramjet afterburners, and are known for their flame stabilization characteristics. These simulations will be used to inform experimental results conducted in the Ben T. Zinn Combustion Lab and potentially provide more insight on flow fields. Several simulations were run in ANSYS Fluent, each with increasing complexity to achieve this goal. Firstly, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) laminar and turbulent k-E viscous models were solved to determine the validity of the geometry and resultant solution. With these test-cases validated, unsteady RANS (URANS), k-w SST models were run for a sweep of Reynolds Numbers from 80 to 250. The results from this sweep showed that the Strouhal number, which is associated with the Von Kármán shedding off the bluff body, corresponded closely with that of the well-studied cylinder profile. As the Reynolds number increases, this vortex street grows in magnitude and frequency which can have serious implications for the flame stability. Future study would involve a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in reacting flow. This additional investigation will be planned to gain insight on the breakdown of local vortices near the flame and irregular oscillations in the flow near lean blowoff conditions. By understanding when and how blowoff occurs with this geometry, the operating ranges of many combustion systems could be expanded and improved.
"Human-Integrated Tool for Proactive and Reactive Security in Cyber-Physical Systems"
As Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Autonomous Systems (AS) become more prominent, it becomes increasingly important for a security network as well as effective collaboration between human operators and AS. To combat this issue, this presentation provides a comprehensive defense software for cyber-physical systems, comprising both proactive and reactive mechanisms to handle cyber-attacks. Specifically, the demonstrated tool allows a human operator to remain aware of the system’s health and operation, while an autonomous subsystem applies a switching rule based on the principles of Moving Target Defense (MTD). Furthermore, the man-machine interaction implements a trust metric, that allows either the autonomous mechanism or the human agent to have more control over the system based on attack detection and mitigation history. Finally, to demonstrate the tool’s security and collaboration capability, it is simulated using an ADMIRE aircraft.
As many companies begin to test prototype eVTOL aircraft, finding the optimal trimmed transition corridor between rotor-borne and wing-borne flight is critical for concepts with tilting rotors and wings. This presentation details the work done as part of a conceptual vehicle design of a eVTOL aircraft at Georgia Institute of Technology. A three degree of freedom model with linear aerodynamic stability derivatives and a surrogate propulsion model was developed for the given aircraft. Interactional effects between rotors and lifting surfaces were neglected during the first development iteration of the tool. The optimizer SNOPT (Sparse Nonlinear OPTimizer) was used to drive the minimization of a specified objective function. Results provide essential insight into the optimal control and constraints of the transition for eVTOL aircraft.
With the total number of satellites orbiting earth scheduled to increase by a factor of five over the next few years, the need for a cheaper and more environmentally conscious way of getting to space is more pertinent now than ever before. Given that the typical payload fraction is between 1 and 10%, any reduction in the amount of fuel needed would be significant both financially and environmentally. SpaceShot provides the conceptual development and simulated analysis of a hybrid launch system, from a primary maglev track to a secondary on-board propulsion system, for smaller unmanned missions, mainly the deployment of small satellites.
Nicolas San Miguel
Safe planning and control of multi-drone missions is an important problem for Urban Air Mobility, among other systems, where missions require an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to execute various tasks while satisfying spatial, temporal, and reactive requirements. This presentation will discuss the use of Signal Temporal Logic (STL) to describe the temporal requirements of a multi-UAV mission concisely and unambiguously and will discuss methods for the planning and control of a dynamically feasible vehicle trajectory that satisfies the specified requirements. The controller tracks a UAV along its trajectory with a bounded tracking error which is within a predetermined robustness margin. In addition, this talk discusses the characterization of the tracking error using sensitivity and robustness metrics.
In recent years, the focus on the development of hypersonic vehicles has increased significantly. Though the hypersonic flight regime presents many unique challenges, it also presents a broad range of benefits ranging from reconnaissance to commercial flight. Some of the challenges concerning research in this area include a limited understanding of the highly interdependent physics as well as classified tools pertaining to hypersonic vehicles. In order to address these issues, this Grand Challenge project seeks to create a multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization (MDAO) environment for a hypersonic vehicle using low fidelity and unclassified data and tools.
Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) allows for effective representation of complex systems and has become increasingly utilized in the engineering design process. Using SysML (System Modeling Language) in the MagicDraw Tool, MBSE techniques were applied to a mission to characterize the lunar exosphere. This presentation will cover the application specifically from a requirements engineering approach, and emphasis was placed on the modeling of key and driving requirements, as well as the traceability of specific mission constraints originating from the request for proposal. The integration of external environments such as MATLAB and SolidWorks into MagicDraw for verification purposes is also briefly discussed.
GT-1 is a mission designed to train students in creating and operating a 1U CubeSat bus, in a fast development timeline. The avionics system is integral to mission success, providing the flight computer, attitude determination sensors, radio communications, solar panels, power supply, system monitoring sensors, and more. This presentation will give an overview of the GT-1 mission, avionics design decisions that worked well, and ones that didn’t, along with other important takeaways that may be useful on other small satellite missions.
"Effect of Heater Location on Horizontal Rijke Tube Hysteresis"
Identifying and mitigating combustion instabilities is one of the biggest areas of research in combustion and propulsion. In doing so, experimental rigs are observed in controlled burning, with temperature, pressure, and other variables tracked and recorded. Often, this raw data undergoes analysis attempts that require plenty of time and programming to do. A better method is to first observe the pressure and temperature data to find hysteresis zones, to narrow down the search for the instabilities. In order to exemplify this metric, a simpler analysis on a horizontal Rijke tube is conducted with preset conditions to find where hysteresis zones may lie.
"Development of Precision Deployment for the TARGIT Mission’s Tether System"
The Tethering And Ranging mission of the Georgia Institute of Technology (TARGIT mission) is one of the latest CubeSats being developed and built by the Space Systems Design Laboratory at Georgia Tech. The tether subsystem of TARGIT is responsible for deploying tether attached to a target inflatable that will be used for validation and testing of a miniaturized LiDAR instrument. To fulfill all requirements for the subsystem the relationship between deployment speed and hardware specifications was characterized, and a model for proper deployment developed. Following thorough testing, this model was incorporated into the TARGIT mission software for precision deployment of the inflatable target.
"ARL Autonomous Drone Docking and Charging System"
The United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) commissioned a drone-charger interface that can perform fully autonomously. The project is headed by two labs at Georgia Tech. Dr. Jonathan Rogers’ lab has designed an autonomous drone capable of landing on a moving target, while Dr. Anirban Mazumdar’s lab designed and prototyped the charging dock. The landing pad dimensions were optimized in MATLAB using Monte Carlo simulations. The system requirements call for an autonomous charging dock that can charge through the feet of a drone regardless of landing orientation. The system had to be rated for 25 amps to charge 5000 mAh capacity LiPo batteries at 5C. With the optimal design point finalized, the dock frame was equipped with circuitry capable of withstanding the required loads. An Arduino Mega serves as the active controller onboard the drone and dock. Each Arduino is equipped with an XBee radio communication device to synchronize the stages in the charging cycle. In this presentation, I will discuss the charging process, design considerations, fail-safes built into the system, and applications of this system in recon drone missions.
"Reduction of Pilot Workload in Rotorcraft Shipboard Landings – A Quantitative versus Qualitative Analysis"
Currently, rotorcraft shipboard landings are associated with high levels of pilot workload. Various visual flight lead cues for real-time guidance were developed and tested in a pilot-in-the-loop flight simulation. For an approach-turn-land maneuver and an approach-land maneuver, the associated pilot workload is analyzed. A quantitative metric based on time-varying power frequency, and qualitative metrics, NASA Task Load Index (TLX) scores and the Deck Interface Pilot Effort Scale (DIPES), were obtained during the simulation. This presentation will outline the current understanding of the most accurate quantitative versus qualitative representation of this pilot workload data.
"Electrical Topology for eVTOL Concept"
The primary focus of this presentation is the development of the electrical topology for a multi-rotor eVTOL aircraft. Motor and battery type and number were already chosen based on powertrain needs. Given the powertrain, the electrical topology is designed to enable safety and low weight. The first important consideration for safety is isolation of motors from one another such that if any component of the powertrain (battery, motor, or inverter) fails, only the opposite motor is potentially affected, preventing failure propagation. Another important safety consideration is ensuring that, in the event of a failure in a circuit, the aircraft continues to maintain full flight control. This is achieved through servos capable of accepting redundant power drawing from two isolated circuits. In addition, servos with redundant motors allow for maintaining control if a servo motor fails. In order to reduce the weight of the circuitry, the power to the ailerons and flaps is carried by the same wires as the power to the motors until near the actuators, where the wires are branched and a DC/DC converter drops the voltage from the motor voltage to the actuator voltage. For actuators that are distant from any motors, such as actuators for tail control surfaces, the DC/DC converter drops the voltage near the batteries, minimizing the wire gauge required to carry power to the actuator.
"SAE Aero Design: Developing a Highly Competitive System of Systems"
For the past 6 years, Georgia Tech has taken first place at the annual SAE Aero Design Advanced Class competition. The competition objectives are inspired by a Mars colonization mission and tasks teams with prototyping and flying an aircraft capable of accurately dropping water bottles, Nerf Aero Howlers, and autonomous gliders into a 50’ target. The aircraft is subjected to a 11’ maximum wingspan and a 750W power limit. Each glider must carry as many “colonists” (represented by table tennis balls) as possible, glide to and land autonomously within the target zone, and weigh less than 9 oz. Score is determined by payload quantity as well as an optimum ratio between the three types of payload delivered.
The iterative design process includes but is not limited to aircraft sizing, aerodynamics analysis, structural analysis, propulsion system selection, and systems testing. The analysis, modeling, manufacturing, and testing methods refined over multiple years have contributed to overall success. Constant flight testing and a history of learning from failure leads not only to a reliable aircraft system but also to a body of adept students that can compete with confidence. Lastly, a constant cycle of peer student-to-student mentoring ensures continued improvement of the team’s ability to design, build, and fly aircraft rapidly.
"2D Automatic Table Generation"
Having multiple parameters and being able to get a solution for an unknown in real time is crucial in fields where this information can be used to make split second decisions. The automatic generation of a 2D table allows for adaptive updates to take place throughout the entire procedure/mission. These computations happen in a continuous manner where the table is updated rather than recomputed. This presentation highlights the iterative methods used to generate the table.
"Development of a Cold-Gas Thruster Component Testbed"
The volumetric constraints of small-satellites, specifically CubeSats, limit the availability of propulsion systems for small-satellite missions. The Lightsey Research Group in the GT Space Systems Design Lab develops custom cold gas thrusters for small-satellite missions, making use of additive manufacturing to integrate the main tank, plenum tank, nozzles, and tubing into one monolithic structure that optimally uses the available volume. However, the compact design significantly limits the ability to test individual components, particularly the solenoid valves and their electronic controller. A scaled-up model of the cold-gas system would allow for simple testing of components along with measurement of pressure and temperature at intermediate points in the flow path. This presentation will discuss the design, development, and upcoming testing of an expanded cold-gas thruster component testbed.
Current Mars entry missions use a rigid thermal protection system, which is limited in diameter by the payload fairing of the launch vehicle. To account for the larger payload masses and decelerator surface areas required for future surface missions, NASA has conducted studies into Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs), which allow large decelerators to be packaged into small volumes. However, HIADs require a flexible thermal protection system (FTPS), which is currently at a low TRL and requires high-fidelity modeling prior to full-scale system testing. This presentation includes the Martian atmospheric entry trajectory modeling for HIAD use cases, stagnation point heat flux calculation for a given trajectory, and the preliminary modeling of FTPS layups to determine the necessary material thicknesses for a given entry trajectory.
Interest in small satellites, specifically CubeSats, has surged in recent years as they offer opportunities to conduct scientific investigations and technology demonstrations in space in such a way that is cost-effective, timely and relatively easy to accomplish. GT-1 is a student-led 1-U CubeSat mission being developed in the Space Systems Design Laboratory with a goal of developing a fully functioning and robust spacecraft bus to be implemented on future GT series CubeSat missions designed to operate in Low Earth Orbit. A critical feature of the spacecraft bus is the UHF antenna and solar panel deployment mechanisms. The small form factor of the 1-U CubeSat (10cm×10cm×10cm) imposes several constraints on such deployment mechanisms and therefore require unique solutions to meet the mission requirements. This presentation aims to explain the development and decision-making process involved in designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating the deployment mechanisms including the problems encountered and the lessons learned throughout the past year
Isaac Del Valle
Tensegrity, a term derived from tensional integrity, refers to a specific class of structures composed of rigid bars and cables. When these bars and cables are connected to each other, they form a lattice-type structure which is capable of undergoing severe deformation due to the buckling of its bars. Utilizing the ability to deform or compress, a tensegrity lattice demonstrates advantageous characteristics as a rover for micro or low gravity environments, including being robust to failure, impact tolerant, and capable of energy efficient modes of locomotion. This presentation highlights the manufacturing processes used to build tensegrity structures, as well as the methods that have been employed to provide locomotion to a tensegrity lattice for future planetary exploration.
One of the recent areas of focus in aerospace has been the use of Model-Based Systems Engineering approaches to aid in the system engineering process. This talk will give an overview of the application, benefits, and limitations of MBSE to modeling aspects of an unmanned mars mission system using SysML in MagicDraw. This includes modeling aspects such as requirements, system structure and hierarchy, and parametric analysis. Additionally, this talk will also briefly discuss the aerodynamic and trajectory analysis code developed for planetary entry as well as the current limitations of MATLAB integration within MagicDraw.
"Conceptual Design and Data Visualizations for Georgia Tech Interuniversity Mission Operations Control Center (GTMOCC) for Cubesat Missions"
As Georgia Tech expands its space systems capabilities with current and planned future Cubesat Missions, it requires a strong foundation for mission operations to be able to send commands and downlink telemetry from these systems. GT-1 and TARGIT are scheduled to be the first customers of the MOCC, however this system will be designed for versatility to accommodate multiple future missions including GT-2+, and formation flying mission like SWARM-EX and VISORS. This presentation aims to provide a proposed layout of how data received from the satellites will be processed to generate mission critical visualizations, and describe the different MOCC operating modes. Integrating AGI Systems Tool Kit along with MATLAB will provide the functionality to propagate estimated orbits for the satellites and calculate access data regarding when estimated next passes occur in order to aid the operations team in changing operating modes.
Utilizing hydrocarbon fuels for rocket engines is beneficial in terms of cost, reliability, and environmental friendliness. To enable more informed and cost-effective designs of rocket engines, it is key to understand the combustion processes involved in the combustion chamber; one approach to do so is through numerical simulations. Numerical simulations facilitate deeper exploration of the physics involved in comparison to experiments. In this study, the numerical simulation of a 7-injector, GCH4/GOX, experimental rocket engine (developed at the Technical University of Munich) is performed with an in-house LES CFD solver. The numerical methodology adopted is based on the well-established, second-order accurate (in both space and time) finite-volume solver for the unsteady Favre-filtered multi-species compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A hybrid scheme, which switches between a second-order-accurate central scheme and a third-order-accurate MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme is employed. The reacting flow and flame features/characteristics are studied from the simulation results.
"Finite Element Model Characterization of a Regeneratively Cooled Nozzle"
Regeneratively cooled nozzles often circulate cryogenic compressed fuel through a nozzle composed of hundreds of tubes. This process cools and helps maintain the strength of the metal components during rocket engine operation. Engine designers use a simplified engine system finite element model to determine loads for component design. A two-dimensional shell mesh can be used for the nozzle in this load analysis model. Beam theory can be leveraged to compute approximate orthotropic material properties such that the shell elements will exhibit the same behavior as the nozzle tubes. A “truth model” can be made using cyclic symmetry. The mode shapes and frequencies of the shell model can be tuned to this truth model using Attune by adjusting the shell orthotropic material properties.
The AIAA undergraduate engine design competition committee has requested proposals for a new engine design for their Mach 2.1 business jet entering into service in the year 2030. The YJ-2030 is Georgia Tech’s response to the AIAA Request For Proposal (RFP). The engine is an afterburning mixed flow turbofan that allows the aircraft to cross the Atlantic in under 5 hours, while still offering extended range at subsonic cruise. This presentation will cover the requirement definition, cycle design, component design and the material and weight analysis of the YJ-2030 engine.
Adrian Vincente La Lande
“3-Dimensional B-Field Profile of a Hall-Effect Thruster”
Like many forms of electric propulsion, Hall Effect thrusters rely on the interaction of electro-static forces. One of the most important physical features is the magnetic field that is distributed both axially and radially inside the discharge channel and allows the thruster to create its characteristic Hall current. This is a critical function of the thruster, as the Hall current sustained by this magnetic field is necessary for creating the plasma ultimately used to produce thrust. Understanding the magnetic field topology of Hall effect thrusters is critical for improving their performance. Despite this, we do not have many ways of spatially characterizing said magnetic fields in our lab. To enhance the diagnostic capabilities of the High-Power Electric Propulsion Lab (HPEPL), a B-Field Mapper (BFM) tool was developed to allow users the ability to accurately and 3-dimensionally map the magnetic field flux of a thruster. This presentation covers the development, application, and performance of the BFM, as well as the magnetic-field topography it measured from a T-220 Hall-effect thruster.
"Developing Preliminary Sizing Optimization and Safety Analysis Tool for Wing Substructure"
Early design decisions made during the conceptual and preliminary design phases of a development program are largely influential to the final weight, design, and cost of the aircraft. This presentation discusses the development and integration of a tool designed to optimize the weights of primary substructure groups within a user-defined wingbox. The optimization process is constrained to ensure all relevant structural margins of safety are satisfied under various shear and bending loads experienced during flight. The resulting optimal weights are summed to return to the user an evaluation of the ideal weight of the analyzed wingbox. This allows for fast and accurate sizing considerations early in the design process.
"Optimal Control for In-Host Virus Models"
Mathematical virus models bear a close resemblance to dynamical systems common in aerospace engineering. This similarity enables the use of optimal control methods to determine improved treatment regimes. The talk will give an overview of ordinary differential equation and continuous time markov chain models (a type of jump process) for viral in-host infections. Control emerges by interrupting infection of new cells with medication. The cost function encodes minimizing amount of medication, and thus side effects, while still eliminating the viral population. Differential dynamic programming will be discussed for the ordinary case and model predictive path integral for the stochastic case.
"Modelling and Analysis of Satellite Megaconstellations"
Much of the anxiety surrounding the deployment of constellations of hundreds or thousands of satellites stems from a position of concern as to the potential interference impact such constellations will have on communications infrastructure. By making use of the capabilities found in STK, especially those related to communications, it was determined that certain types of ground receivers, under the right conditions, are more exposed to interference from the downlink satellites of these megaconstellations. The project also developed a workflow procedure to efficiently and accurately model megaconstellations by using generating two line element files for the individual assets of the constellation.
Since the proposed constellations have not yet been deployed as of this project, certain assumptions had to be made to generate a realistic notional constellation, including altitude, RAAN, and inclination of the orbital shells. A custom-made python script was used to iterate through values in the TLE to generate evenly distributed networks of satellites in each shell based on input altitude, planes per shell, and satellites per plane. A notional constellation of 12,000 satellites distributed among three different shells was created. Deck Access was then used to determine which of these fictional spacecraft would fall within the field-of-view of the ground-site within the analysis period.
"Initial Prototyping and Testing of a Modular Delivery Drone"
Delivery companies are looking to drones as a method for delivering packages quickly and reliably to consumer doorsteps. However, the development of a universal delivery vehicle leads to a tradeoff between payload capacity and flight efficiency. One solution is to build a modular drone such that smaller loads would be carried by a single drone while larger loads would be carried by, for example, four drones together. One such prototype was developed as a series of quadrotors organized in an X-pattern. After a single quadrotor was built and flown, a lightweight aluminum frame was constructed to interlock four drones and a single flight controller.
Flight testing was accomplished by tethering all drones to the ground, enabling a controllable flight radius ranging from three to thirty feet. The drone was able to be piloted directly with full directional control, but with noticeable flight instability. In an attempt to solve this, GPS systems were added to the drone to enable autopilot functionality. However, the drone was unable to maintain a constant position and altitude. Most recently, a single drone was flown with a suspended load using both direct and remote control with great success. As such, it was determined that flight controller redesign in the form of PID gain manipulation would allow for stable flight of the modular drone system